Give My Regards to Broad Street
The signalling that once existed on the approaches to the North London Railway’s City terminus
by John Hinson
The North London Railway was unique in having a very intensive passenger service intermingled along with frequent freight traffic. The majority of the freight followed the east-west route between Camden and Poplar Docks, although a proportion ran to Broad Street Goods Depot
The line between Dalston and Broad Street was made up to three lines in early days, and by 1872 a fourth line was added. These lines were defined as the No.1 lines (the eastern pair) and the No.2 lines (on the west side). Traffic using the pairs of lines was always quite divided, and prior to 1905 many locations had separate No.1 and No.2 boxes, controlling their respective lines. The “frequent electric service” (introduced 1916) to Hampstead, Willesden, Kew Bridge or Richmond used the No.2 lines, whereas the steam service to Poplar (withdrawn 1943) and the Great Northern peak-hour service to such places as Potters Bar and Hertford used the No.1 lines. This gave rise to unofficial references to the lines as “Electric” and “Steam” lines.
To understand the signalling between Dalston Junction and Broad Street, we shall follow the progress of an “Up Motor”, which is what the electric units were referred to by the LMS.
Dalston Junction was a six-platform station, with faces to each of the No.1 and No.2 lines and also the Poplar branch which converged here. At the north end of the station both lines disappeared into “covered ways” which might be regarded as something too long to be classed a bridge and not a tunnel because it doesn’t pass through the ground! These covered ways are not uncommon in London, through the value of building housing over otherwise wasted space.
A signalling plan of 1872 shows the station to be controlled by one 30-lever box, named Dalston South Junction. The curiously laid out frame was numbered/lettered:
A 1 2 B 3 C 4 D E F G H 5 J K L 8 9 I 0 12 M N P Q 13 14 15
The lettered levers worked the signals. This box became Dalston Junction No1 when an additional 35 lever box was provided to work part of the layout as expansion took place. The latter, Dalston Junction No.2 was enlarged around 1909 to accommodate a new 60-lever frame built at the North London’s workshops at Bow. This new frame took over all the functions of the No.1 box and remained in use up to closure of the box in 1979.
Dalston Junction signal box, the former No.2 cabin which was enlarged to accommodate the 60-lever frame c1909:
On leaving the station, the driver of our “Up Motor” passes under two bridges, between which the Down Homes for Dalston Junction are seen. These were believed to be the tallest signal posts in the country, towering some 60 feet in order to accommodate co-acting arms. These were replaced by colour light signals, as were many semaphores in the area, in the late ‘fifties or early sixties.
View a track layout diagram for Dalston Junction at 1938
View a track layout diagram for Dalston Junction at 1974
The line then rises steeply to run on viaduct for the remaining journey to Broad Street. A small station existed at Haggerston, which had platforms on the No.1 lines only. Two boxes controlled the layout, which consisted only of crossover roads between the various lines.
Beneath the Up Starters were distants for Dalston Junction, which rarely saw use owing to the intensity of the service, and were subsequently “fixed” in the on position. Beneath these arms were some unique signals – miniature-arm distant signals called “Calling-On Distants”. These could be cleared by Dalston Junction box when only his home signal was off, indication to a driver that he had a clear run into the platform although the starting signal was likely to be “on”.
Haggerston No.2 box took over control of the entire layout around 1908, but was closed at a relatively early date (1940) when Intermediate Block Homes were provided, controlled by Dalston Junction. As with all the early rationalisation schemes on the North London, Dalston Junction took control of both the Down and Up IBHs whereas modern practice would always be to control the IBHs from the box in rear for each direction.
After winding through Haggerston, our driver sees Dunloe Street box perched on the west side of the viaduct.
A small block post of sixteen levers opened on the east side in 1881, but this was replaced in 1893 by a forty lever box controlling a small goods yard for the London & North Western Railway which was built out from the viaduct. Access from road level was by a tall spiral iron staircase. This box survived into the late history of the line as an intermediate block post, latterly worked in peak hours only. When finally closed in 1976, the arms were simply removed from the signals but the box left “switched out” in case traffic ever warranted its reinstatement, but this never occurred. The box remained in situ in this state until after the line closed.
View a track layout diagram for Dunloe Street at 1976
Swinging sharply to the right, the line then winds through Shoreditch station, where again platforms only existed on the No.1 lines. The first box here opened in 1865, but this was converted into a Gentleman’s toilet in 1874, and a new box opened. I wonder if any other signal box can claim this dubious afterlife. This ten-lever replacement box became Shoreditch No1 by 1894 when a No.2 box opened with 15 levers. No.1 closed around 1909 when the layout was centralised on the former No.2 box, which was made up to an incredible eighteen levers to cope with the work. Shoreditch closed c1954, but the with the short length of the sections, it was not deemed necessary to provide Intermediate Block signals.
New Inn Yard
Suddenly our motorman finds himself leaving the wayside boxes and weave through complex junctions amongst the dull warehouses and factories of the area, whilst still on viaduct.
On the left, set at an angle for good visibility, stands a grimy towering box named New Inn Yard. This sixty lever box primarily controlled the divergence of the Goods Arrival and Departure Lines, for traffic proceeding to Broad Street Goods. The box also worked running connections between the No.1 and No.2 lines, although as the traffic was strictly segregated they probably saw little use.
The Down Homes were on a tall bracket signal on the east side of the line for early viewing around the sharp curve, but as this was positioned four lines away a driver on the No.1 Down line standing right at the signal would get quite a crick in the neck watching for it to clear. For this reason a banner repeater signal was provided at ground level adjacent to the No.2 Down line. This was an unusual use of a banner signal in that they were normally provided some distance in rear of the signal to which they applied..
On the Up Lines, New Inn Yard had “Train Bars”, an old-fashioned practice of detecting trains standing on a running line (used before track-circuiting became commonplace) and quite different in function to a clearance bar which would be used to detect trains foul on adjacent lines and connections. New Inn Yard had clearance bars too, but there were no track circuits at all.
There were also two “Detector Levers” which worked to complex point detection separately rather than the signal wire run passing via the points concerned.
The connections to and from Broad Street Goods were abolished when that yard closed in 1969, and the box itself closed in 1970.
Skinner Street Junction
The line twists left again on the final approach to Broad Street, and on the left is Skinner Street Junction, the largest and most important box on the North London Railway. The first box here opened in 1865, but it is doubtful if that was the eighty lever box that was found here in later years. The box is certainly recorded as “re-sited to the north” in 1875/6. The box had a flat roof, which is unusual for a box that clearly dated back to the early 1900s, if not earlier. Perhaps it was a replacement after a windy night, or fire damage.
Should the signalmen have had time (which is doubtful) there was a splendid view from the rear of the box looking down on the Great Eastern’s Liverpool Street station, which was set at ground level.
A glance at Skinner Street Junction’s track layout would probably make you wonder why I describe the box as “most important” for, apart from a ladder crossing forming a duplicate set of connections towards Broad Street Goods to those at New Inn Yard, there seems to be precious little track layout. However, the box’s function was to regulate the platforms (“bays”) at Broad Street, using special “Platform Block” Instruments to Broad Street No.1 and 2 boxes. These instruments have survived and are part of the York Railway Museum collection although not on general display.
The special instruments used between Skinner Street Junction and the Broad Street cabins. This one is the instrument that was in Skinner Street signalling trains in and out of platforms 1 to 4. This instrument is now part of the National Railway Museum’s collection at York, but is not normally on public display:
The operation of these instruments is described on the signalman’s instructions from Broad Street No.2 box:-
| A special telegraph communication is established between Skinner street Junction box and this box. The signalman at Skinner Street Junction will, before admitting any train into the station, signal it forward on the particular bay line instrument, and obtain a reply that the bay into which the train should run is clear. The normal position of the telegraph indicators is "Line Blocked". When the bays are blocked and it is necessary to bring a light engine or 3-car electric train from Skinner Street Junction, the station inspector must be advised when the engine or train is signalled, and he must go or send a responsible man to bring the engine or train into the bay with caution. The bell code must not be acknowledged for the train until the inspector or person detailed has joined the engine or motor compartment.
When the time has nearly arrived for a train to leave the station, the signalman at this box must signal the train in the usual manner to the signalman at Skinner Street Junction, and on receiving the "Line Clear" indication take off the signal for the train to leave the station.
Regulation 3-The following special "Is Line Clear?" signals will be used between Skinner Street Junction and Broad Street No.2 box for Up and Down trains:-
Regulation 4-The Bell Codes
Regulation 10-After an Up train has arrived in the Bay, one beat on the bell must be given and the indicator moved to the "Line Blocked" position.
The corresponding bell signals on Broad Street No.1’s instructions were as follows:
|Regulation 3-The following special "Is Line Clear?" signals will be used between Skinner Street Junction and Broad Street No.1 box for Up and Down trains:-
It is curious that the admission of a train into an occupied platform was treated with such paranoia. The arrangement was, perhaps, to afford some safety in the famous London smog.
The remaining levers at Skinner Street Junction controlled a plethora of slots on adjacent box’s signals, including individual slots on each departure signal from the station.
In the other direction, the standard block of the North London Railway was in use – the Pryce & Ferreira three position block. Little is known about what made these so different that British railways carried out complete replacement along the line in the late ‘fifties. The only feature that has been “passed down” from older staff is that the bell plunger (in the centre of the commutator) had to be held in on the last beat of any bell signal in order to release and turn the commutator. It is also said that the North London Railway did not use conventional Is Line Clear? bell signals, using codes to indicate the destinations of freight trains instead. This is quite reasonable, because the relative speeds of freight trains on this low speed railway would be of no relevance. Skinner Street Junction also closed in 1970.
The Pryce & Ferreira block instrument, as once used extensively along the North London Railway.
The one illustrated here is now owned by the National Railway Museum at York, although not on general display. It came from Skinner Street Junction box, working the No.2 lines between there and New Inn Yard.
View a track layout diagram for Skinner Street Junction at 1972
The last two boxes that our motorman passes, as he rolls into Broad Street station, are Broad Street No.1 (on the left) and No.2 (on the right). Right at the platform ends are the departure signals, which once had “bow-tie” shunt signals below, whilst on the back of the same posts (facing our driver) are signals governing access to the platforms.
Broad Street No1, with its 75 lever frame, only dated from 1891, and must in later years have been a quiet box to work, seeing only the peak-hour trains to the Great Northern. Some of these were still locomotive hauled (with non-corridor stock) in the late sixties, whilst others were worked by the constantly vibrrrrrating Craven DMUs. I can recall that three light engines coupled were dispatched from Finsbury Park to Broad Street each weekday afternoon, usually consisting of two Brush Type 2 locomotives and a Baby Deltic.
But the box must have been very busy at one time, as the 1929 Signalmen’s Instructions read:-
The head signalman will be responsible for the entire working of the box, and when the porter signalman is on duty will attend to the block instruments and Up line signal levers. The porter signalman will work the Down signal levers and points to and from the engine pits.
Regulation 26-The signalman at this box need only book exceptional circumstances and delays.
No.1 box closed in 1969. No.2 box was the older of the two, dating from 1876, although not the earliest box here by any means. It controlled platforms 5 to 8 from a seventy lever Stevens & Sons frame, the last non-standard frame to survive on the line. This frame appeared to have had a three lever extension made at the left hand end at some time (which also required a northward extension to the box) but I cannot trace these levers as ever having been used and they may only ever have existed as spaces in the frame.
A ninth platform was provided in 1913, but this was outside the main shell of the station with its over-all roof and was distinctly bare-looking with its wooden decking. However, it did command an interesting view of Broad Street Goods which even as late as 1969 warranted its own shunt engine and I have a rather poor box-brownie photograph one Saturday lunchtime of an English Electric Type 1 locomotive (which had arrived on a trip) and the shunt engine both at work. The Goods Yard was at viaduct level, and there were hoists on each siding to lower the wagons down to street level. Below, there was another network of lines, where wagons would be man-handled to a convenient position for transhipment.
Both boxes basically acted as Shunting Frames (using modern phraseology) as Skinner Street Junction box made the decisions on the platforming and signalled the train on the appropriate block instrument to tell the Broad Street men where to route them. Signals between both boxes were individually slotted, too, which seems excessive given the provision of the special instruments.
No.2 box did not have the luxury of an extra signalman at peak times, but of course there was far less work involved in dealing with electric units than for locomotive hauled trains.
At Broad Street, a “scissors” or “bow-tie” signal used to be provided beneath each platform starter which, according to the NLR Appendix, were used as follows:-
These signals are provided at the undermentioned places, and when lowered at night exhibit a green light (less in size than the usual light), but when at danger no light is visible:-
Another interesting feature included in the NLR appendix was:-
WORKING IN AND OUT OF BAYS
In ordinary circumstances the following is the train working:-
When a signal is lowered at Skinner Street Junction for a train to enter a bay at Broad Street Station which it is not booked to run into, the driver must challenge such signal by opening the engine whistle and bring his train to a stand.
If after whistling and coming to a stand, the signal is still not altered, enginemen and guards must be prepared to enter the bay for which the signal is off.
The No.1 lines were abolished between Broad Street and Dalston Junction in 1968. When the station’s signalling was rationalised in 1970, No.2 box was the lucky survivor, and the only one I was privileged to work as a relief signalman in the ‘eighties. Working the Stevens’ frame with its different stroke lengths of the levers (short stroke for points, long for signals and Facing Point locks, further confused by two push-pull levers (which were by then out of use) certainly contrasted with the North London stirrup frames found elsewhere on the line.
Broad Street No.2 box, on the end of platform 9. Notice the signal right outside the window, where conversations with the lampman used to take place:
By the time I worked there, the entire goods yard area had been cleared of viaduct, and the land below used as a car park – at exorbitant fees if the kind of car to be found there was anything to go by. One had to remember not to empty the teapot out of the back window.
The only accessible front window, for gawping at trains or shouting at drivers had, for some stupid reason, a fire extinguisher mounted on the wall below it. I always used to lift it off its bracket (to avoid it giving me a pain in a nasty place) and place it on the floor nearby. The reason I mention this will be explained shortly.
Outside this signal, within touching distance, was the Platform 5 (originally platform 8) starting signal. You never had to flag a train past this one during failure conditions – you could just hold the arm up! It could also cause amusement when the voice of the lampman would boom forth when you lest expected it and thought you were alone.
Inside Broad Street box, showing the Stevens & Sons frame that survived to be the last of its type on the North London Railway’s lines by many years. At the “business-end” of the frame (in later years most of the levers at the high end were out of use) stands an odd character of a Relief Signalman by the name of John Hinson:
For some reason, Broad Street No.2 seemed well supplied with mice. They used to travel around in the cable ducting, often you could hear their feet scrabbling, and occasionally they would scream loudly – perhaps that was a stand off when two met in a cable duct. I presume they made their way up from ground level through the ducts, too. You would see one show its face at floor level, only to disappear again and reappear on the block shelf.
Perhaps it was one great game with them, I don’t know, but nobody ever seemed bothered by them.
One day, when I was sitting quietly in the corner for a few minutes, I noticed a mouse masking his way along the floor by the front wall, behind the levers, nosing around. As he made his way around he came upon the fire extinguisher which I had placed on the floor, and skirted round it. As it was nearly going out of view under my chair, I shifted slightly to watch its progress.
Hearing the noise of my movement, the mouse looked up at me. AAaaaagh! Human! Must get away from here! It turned on the spot and ran off back towards where it came from. But it forgot one thing in its haste. “Bong” – it crashed into the fire extinguisher and must have gained a considerable bruise in the process. It turned and gave me a filthy look – “Did you put that there?” and ran off.
This view shows clearly the provision for three additional levers at the left-hand end of the frame for which the box was enlarged although it is believed they were never brought into use.
The run-down of Broad Street had started long before I worked there, but for a while it lived a steady existence with a twenty minute frequency of Richmond three-car “motors”, with an additional half-hourly peak hour service to Watford. The box hours were 0445 to 2340, with a later start on Sundays. The Sunday afternoon turn was incorporated in the Dalston Junction box roster which otherwise had no Sunday work.
The land at Broad Street was obviously of high value, but nobody believed the rumours that it would close, because things like that just didn’t happen. But eventually a scheme was hatched where a new line would be built at Hackney to allow the Watford service to run into Liverpool Street, and electrification to North Woolwich allowed the Richmond trains to be diverted there. These changes were political, and effected no improvement to the service. Together with the elimination of not calling at certain stations (“to avoid confusion”) of the Watford service, it became such a slow and dreary trip that people found quicker ways to reach the city.
After a few years, the Watford service dwindled to one train a day that was usually cancelled, and eventually was withdrawn. The Woolwich service, which replaced rrrrattly Craven DMUs, has at least enjoyed more success but users of the line have to change trains at Highbury or Stratford to reach the City. Anyway, so desperate were the developers to create their “Broadgate” complex on the Broad Street site that they had already started before the Watford service could be diverted to Liverpool Street.
For the last few months, trains terminated at temporary platform north of the old station, with the buffer stops perched at the top of a precipice looking down on the building site below. The station and box finally closed in 1989 (I think!), and there is no trace to be found there now. Much of the route to Dalston, being on viaduct, still survives, and there are even plans to run Underground trains along it. How politics change!
View a track layout diagram for Broad Street No1 in 1946
View a track layout diagram for Broad Street No2 around 1950
View a track layout diagram for Broad Street No2 at 1982
A short while before Broad Street station closed, some night filming was carried out in connection with Paul McCartney’s film “Give My Regards to Broad Street” which was a play on words with the Broadway musical. They later returned for a retake of a scene, spending hours on a summer night hosing down the platforms to ensure they were as damp as the original sequence.